Trust men and they will be true to you; treat them greatly, and they will show themselves great.
Ralph Waldo Emerson

domingo, 14 de octubre de 2018


A. 1) Put into the passive:
1. People often make fun of bosses in passwords.
2. Elisabeth Manzon has directed food projects at the government agency for a long time now.
3. Liquorice Locks cage off (poner en jaulas) single pieces of candy to prevent them from use.
4. The college admissions offices at universities are getting more requests from students who
have previously enjoyed a gap year.
5. You may ease (aliviar, minimizar) the conflict by saying something light and unexpected.
6. Netflix has offered cheap subscriptions.
7. Our Security Department has urged citizens to report anything dangerous they witness.

1. You should change your password if you consider someone may know it. (3RD)
2. If my dog had gone missing, I ́d have felt miserable. (2ND)
3. If I had five lives, I ́d try to do my best every single time. (3RD)
4. The dropout rate amongst US freshmen (US -school: 1st-year student) wouldn’t be so high if
more grants were given to them. (1ST)
5. If waves of laughter (risa) had been sweeping the land, waves of violence would have
decreased. (2ND)
6. If I had Netflix, I could become a TV binger. ( = a person who watches one episode after
another on the web) (3RD)

C) Transform into reported speech:
1.” I was trapped in a toxic relationship when I was very young.”
Sylvia remembered yesterday that she …
2. “If you cook with passion”, Mr. Moya emphasized, “people will eat it.”
Mr Moya emphasized that if I …
3. “It is a pity you can ́t explain why you arrived so late last night. “
My angry mother shouted that it …
4. “Weren ́t the first human beings born serious?”
All along yesterday ́s talk the lecturer kept asking herself if …
5. “ Some of this could be caused by the economy.”
It was noted that some of that…
6. “How will history judge us if we fail to communicate the urgency of acting now?”
The chief asked his colleagues …

D) Combine into one sentence containing a relative clause.
1. Douglas R. Hofstadter is a famous professor. I do not agree with his opinions.
2. Other special candies appear on the boards for free. The candies can be purchased from the
in-game store.
3. A gap year is a break from formal education. A gap year can last different timespans (period de tiempo).

E) Write a question for which the underlined words are the answer:
1. We ́ve always been used to letting people take what they haven ́t finished.
2. Recently a dog walked eleven miles to return home.
3. The player can also purchase various Boosters to attempt to win levels more easily.
Why can the player also purchase various Boosters?
4. Harvard ́s admission office is happy to offer the benefits of a gap year to freshmen because
they feel it is beneficial for the students.
5. In our frenzy to succeed and to have it all, we have shortened ( acortar, reducir) everything.
What have we shortened in our frenzy to succeed and to have it all?
6. The number of households subscribing to premium networks has fallen.
7. Some experts are calling for the immediate introduction of a price on carbon emissions.


martes, 22 de mayo de 2018



1)She has plenty of money, but she is very mean. ALTHOUGH

2) I didn ́t buy the car, even though I had the money.  HOWEVER

3) She never takes any kind of exercise, but she is quite fit an healthy. THOUGH

4) They have a car but they rarely use it. ALTHOUGH

5) They went out for a walk, even though the weather was bad. ALTHOUGH

6) Despite being innocent he was sent to prison. NEVERTHELESS

7) A lot of people buy those houses, even though the prices are high.   HOWEVER

8) Our coach didn ́t arrive late, even though the traffic was terrible.  NEVERTHELESS

9) People continue to smoke, even though they know the dangers. HOWEVER

10) Despite being very tired, he stayed out late.  ALTHOUGH


1) I am going to study harder. I want to pass my exam BECAUSE

2) A lot of people learn English because they want to study in England. IN ORDER TO

A lot of people learn English ...

3) He lifted me up because he wanted me to see what was happening. SO THAT

He lifted me up...

4) Try to write clearly. That way you will avoid being misunderstood. SO AS TO

Try to write clearly so as to...

5) What do I need to know, if I want to be a good doctor? TO

6) If you want to have a hundred students, you will need at least three teachers. TO

You will need at least three teachers... 

7) They had to eat grass and drink melted snow in order to stay alive. SO THAT

They had to eat grass and drink melted snow...

8) I sat next to the window because I wanted to see what was going on. TO

9) I waved my arms. I wanted them to see me. SO THAT

10) He does gymnastics in the bathroom to keep fit. IN ORDER TO

He does gymnastics in the bathroom ...

12) He took a taxi to the airport. That way he didn't miss the train. SO AS NOT

He took a taxi to the airport...


1) I opened the window due to the heat.

I opened the window because...

2) They lost the match due to the bad weather.


3) She missed the bus so she had to take a taxi.


5) The weather was fine, so we decided to go out.


6) He got the highest marks in the class; as a result, he received a prize.


7) The factory closed down as a result of so many strikes.

As there...

8) We still speak Italian at home, so I ́m bilingual.

I ́m bilingual because...

9) Joan eats very little so as not to put on weight.

Joan eats very little because...


1)We need to increase sales. Therefore, we ́ll start a new advertising campaign.

We need to increase sales, so...

2) We didn ́t go swimming because the water wasn ́t very clean.

The water wasn ́t very clean...

3) I ́m going to bed because I ́m really tired.

I ́m really tired so...

4) As I didn ́t know it was your birthday, I didn ́t buy you a present.

I didn ́t know it was your birthday so...

5) I left the cinema because the film was very boring.

The film was very boring, therefore...

6) As I didn ́t have any food in the fridge, I went to bed without dinner.

I didn ́t have any food in the fridge, consequently...

7) We don ́t trust politicians because they are always lying.

Politicians are always lying so...

8) I never go to that shop because the owner is very unfriendly.

-The owner of that shop is very unfriendly so... 

lunes, 7 de mayo de 2018

martes, 1 de mayo de 2018





The verbs say and tell have similar meanings. They both mean "to communicate verbally with someone". But we often use them differently.
The simple way to think of say and tell is:
  • You say something
  • You tell someone something
You say somethingYou tell someone something
Ram said that he was tired.Ram told Jane that he was tired.
Anthony says you have a new job.Anthony tells me you have a new job.
Tara said: "I love you."Tara told John that she loved him.
But, of course, it is not always so easy. Here are a few rules to help you.
Personal object
We usually follow tell with a personal object (the person that we are speaking to). We usually use say without a personal object:
  • She told me that she loved John.
  • She said that she loved John.
  • He told everybody that he had to leave.
  • He said that he had to leave.
Say "to someone"
With say, we sometimes use "to someone":
  • He said to me that he was tired.
  • Tara said to Ram that he had done very well.
  • Anthony said to her, "I hope you come soon."




This will change into that.
These will change into those.
Here will change into there.
Now/just will change into then.
Today will change into that day.
Yesterday will change into the previous day or the day before.
Last night will change into the previous night or the night before.
Tomorrow will change into the next day.
Ago will change into before.
The next day/week/year will change into the following day/week/year.
Hence will change into thence.
Thus will change into so or in that way.
Direct: He said, ‘I am too weak to work now.’
Indirect: He said that he was too weak to work then.
Direct: She said, ‘I will leave for New York tomorrow.’
Indirect: She said that she would leave for New York the next day.
Direct: He said, ‘I visited them yesterday.’
Indirect: He said that he had visited them the previous day.
Direct: She said, ‘I liked this bag.’
Indirect: She said that she liked that bag.
Direct: I said, ‘I am leaving tomorrow.’
Indirect: She said that she was leaving the next day.
Direct: She said, ‘These mangoes are rotten.’
Indirect: She said that those mangoes were rotten.
Direct: He said, ‘These are our dogs.’
Indirect: He said that those were their dogs.




To practise, click HERE

Reported Requests
There's more! What if someone asks you to do something (in a polite way)? For example:
  • Direct speech: "Close the window, please"
  • Or: "Could you close the window please?"
  • Or: "Would you mind closing the window please?"
All of these requests mean the same thing, so we don't need to report every word when we tell another person about it. We simply use 'ask me + to + infinitive':
  • Reported speech: She asked me to close the window.
Here are a few more examples: 
Direct RequestReported Request
“Please help me”.She asked me to help her.
“Please don't smoke”.She asked me not to smoke.
“Could you bring my book tonight?”She asked me to bring her book that night.
“Could you pass the milk, please?”She asked me to pass the milk.
“Would you mind coming early tomorrow?”She asked me to come early the next day.
To report a negative request, use 'not':
  • Direct speech: "Please don't be late."
  • Reported speech: She asked us not to be late.
Reported Orders
And finally, how about if someone doesn't ask so politely? We can call this an 'order' in English, when someone tells you very directly to do something. For example:
  • Direct speech: "Sit down!"
In fact, we make this into reported speech in the same way as a request. We just use 'tell' instead of 'ask':
  • Reported speech: She told me to sit down.
Direct OrderReported Order
“Go to bed!”He told the child to go to bed.
“Don't worry!”He told her not to worry.
“Be on time!”He told me to be on time.
“Don't smoke!”He told us not to smoke.




martes, 16 de enero de 2018


Linkers – contrast, addition, reason and result

Choose 2 correct linkers in each sentence:   

1.-Although / Because / Though  I felt tired, I decided to go to the party.

2.-She didn't go to the party because           / since / so she felt tired.
3.-Due to / In spite of / Despite  the bad weather, the picnic was cancelled.
4.-Despite / Due to / In spite of  feeling tired, I went to the party.
5.-She felt tired after her long journey. Consequently, /Therefore, / However, she decided not to go to the party.
6.-I felt tired after a long day at work. However, / Therefore, / But I went to the party because I wanted to see Janine.
7.-Parties can be fun when you're in the right mood. On the other hand, / As a result, However, when you're tired they can be a strain.
8.-We stopped playing tennis because / because of / due to the rain.
9.-We had to hurry indoors as / since / because of  it was raining.
10.-It was raining hard. Nevertheless, / Therefore, / However,  we went ahead with the garden party.

Rewrite the following sentences in two possible ways using the linking words in brackets:

The Trocadero Plaza is popular with shoppers. The Trocadero Plaza has good public transport. (since, so)

Most tourists go to Golden Sands Beach. Golden Sands Beach is one of the most polluted in the country. (however, although)

I'm going to do a course in Italian next year. I'm going to improve my Mandarin next year. (also, besides)

I'm not very good at languages. I'm going to do a course in Mandarin next year. (For this reason, because)

I'm quite good at languages. I'm going to take courses in Korean, Japanese and French next year. (therefore, as)

The traffic was terrible this morning. I managed to get to work on time. (Nevertheless, although)

The traffic was terrible this morning. I was about 25 minutes late for work. (As a result, due to)

Smoking is bad for your health. Smoking is a waste of money. (not only… but also; apart from)

I don't think Charlie Wong would be a good candidate for this job. He is hard working and reliable. (However; although)